In my years counseling clients, I have found that each client, couple or family who comes to me have their own unique situations to plan for. But while their situations are unique, the questions that they ask tend to be very similar. Below are some of the most common questions I get and some general answers to those questions. Later this week, I will post some additional questions and answers:
1) Why do I need to use an attorney? Can I draft my will/estate plan myself? The proliferation of products like Legal Zoom have encouraged do-it-yourselfers to consider drafting their own estate plans with little to no advice from an attorney. In some situations, a “simple will” may be all you need and the harm in using self-preparation software is minimal. However, for most individuals, a simple will does not reflect their complicated lives. Moreover, while Legal Zoom does provide some legal counsel, the professionals they use are likely less dedicated to the do-it-yourselfers than their own clients.
2) Who should I select as my fiduciaries (executors, trustees, guardians)? Can they be the same people? The main criteria for selecting a fiduciary is whether you believe a person is qualified to handle the tasks they are appointed to do. You may have family or friends who may handle financial situations well, but would struggle in the role as a guardian. There may be individuals whose current life situation is simply too complicated to serve in any capacity while others could handle all roles in a manner that you find appropriate. In the end, your fiduciaries should reflect your values and beliefs in how each role should be handled.
3) Why should I leave property to my children (or other minors) in trust and not outright? Under New York law, any account beneficially owned by a child must be paid to that child by the time they reach age twenty-one (21). For many children, this is a very early age to be given such a large financial responsibility. The use of a trust for a child can extend the period of time when the property earmarked for that child can be held and managed by another individual (the trustee).
4) I was told that life insurance was tax free, but recently learned that life insurance proceeds are included in my taxable estate. Is there a way to avoid having these proceeds subject to estate tax? By using a vehicle known as an irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT for short), life insurance proceeds can be removed from an individual’s taxable estate for both federal and New York estate tax purposes. The inclusion of these proceeds in a taxable estate can increase or even create an estate tax liability where none would exist otherwise. The creation and administration of an ILIT does require additional time and money, but if properly administered, the benefits far exceeds the cost.
5) My parents have all of their assets in a revocable living trust and recommended I do the same. Is it true that this trust can help me avoid probate? If funded and administered properly, a revocable living trust can help avoid the costs and delays associated with probate and estate administration. However, for many individuals, an estate administration proceeding may be necessary even with a revocable living trust. Oftentimes, assets will not be properly transferred into a revocable trust before a person dies. In these situations, a short ‘pour over will’ will typically transfer the remaining assets into the trust following an estate administration proceeding.
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